Global Terrorism. Historically, the commentary associated with terrorism consisted only of it representing a threat which employed ‘asymmetrical’ tactics to disrupt populaces. Whilst the West continues with the abovementioned strategy—and follows the US model of action—exogenous actors will continue to perceive the West as an existential threat and their violent reactions will continue.  The definition of ‘Eurocentric’ is to view societies through the prism of European and Anglo-American definitions of the societies and the World. Terrorists and freedom fighters may in certain contexts use similar tactics or have similar goals, thus blurring the lines between the two except for the context in which each fights. There is a wide spectrum of potential threats to the U.S. homeland that do not involve overt attacks by states using long-range missiles or conventional military forces. Eight Recent Champions of the Just War Tradition, 9. 13. See: ‘Positivism’ Dictionary.com http://www.dictionary.com/browse/positivism?s=t. Their actions by necessity have demanded a change in thinking by governments of nation-states—particularly Western nation-states. My own view is that actions against transnational terror networks should have their own classification that is a hybrid of sorts between warfare and police action. 2. The link that is able to be made here is a terrorist, when reacting through the prism of violence is effectively, using violence as an extension of their reality. On one hand, some commentators classify it as warfare, in with the terrorist enjoying the same status and rights as any other POW. Notwithstanding the aforementioned and for the purpose of this essay the Enlightenment is 1685 – 1815. An introduction, guide and assessment, 16. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Red-Army-Faction. To Fight or Not to Fight? Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999, 15. Having a clear idea of what terrorism is will help us know how best to respond justly to the threat of terrorism towards innocent noncombatants. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Terrorism & Asymmetrical Warfare?  Eric Margolis. Because we didn’t understand the place.’ Foreign Policy. It is one which moves it as an act, to beyond a rational decision to that of a personal one. The 9/11 attacks are a quintessential example of terrorism. ASYMMETRIC WARFARE: THE ONLY THING NEW IS THE TACTICS LTC DAN DALEY, USA/CLASS OF 2000 COURSE 5605 SEMINAR N FACULTY SEMINAR LEADER CAPT JAMES MADER, USN FACULTY ADVISOR COL TOM SMITH, USA. Notwithstanding the carnage the number of fatalities from terrorist attacks 2000-2015 decreased compared to previous decades.  Jack Reynolds. The different types of asymmetric warfare are robustly associated. This is writ large in the following observation, The American tradition [of fighting wars and of intervention] also tends to neglect the lesson, learned repeatedly in dozens of twentieth-century wars, that the only way to defeat an insurgency campaign is not to attack the enemy but instead to protect and win over the people.. There is and remains, however, in the complex narrative of terrorism, an alternate perspective of whether terrorists’ deem the West to be an existential threat. Since 2001, there have been numerous attacks: the Westgate shopping mall attack by Al-Shabaab in Nairobi (Kenya, 2013), in which 67 people were killed; the kidnapping of 276 schoolgirls by Boko Haram in Chibok (Nigeria, 2014); and the shootings in the Charlie Hedbo office in Paris (France, 2015) by Al-Qaeda, in which 11 people were killed. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century.  ‘Kenya’s Westgate shopping mall reopens after tragedy.’ BBCNews. Seven All-Stars of the Just War Tradition, 8. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. According to the political rhetoric the labeling of terrorism in this way is an acknowledgement that when a terrorist act is committed, it is free of social- and historical-constraints—the act is devoid of reason and made solely from personal accord. Terrorism, therefore, is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, iterations of which exhibit criss-crossing and overlapping characteristics.  Samuel Huntington. 11. In regard to ends, acts of terror are usually waged on behalf of a religion or ideology. http://www.history.com/topics/enlightenment,  ‘Positivism’ was founded by Auguste Comte and is concerned with positive facts outweighing speculation. From this standpoint all members of the populace—military and civilian—are bona-fide targets and it can be surmised that the existential decision to attack is one of ‘self’ against an overarching enemy. To craft an ethical but ineffective counterterrorism is an injustice to the noncombatants in our societies who do not deserve being blown to pieces while working at the desk in their Manhattan office or flying with their family on a commercial airliner. The rethink has been brought about by the pursuit of civilian (undefended) locales and the successes individuals and terrorist groups have achieved in targeting them. ‘Red Army Faction.’ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. Image by DVIDSHUB (Sgt. Acknowledging that existentialism is a profoundly nuanced subject matter and one that encompasses many more aspects than those mentioned is a germane yet necessary observation to make. Modern General Psychology.‘ Kachehri Ghat: Bhargava Book House, 2000, 37. https://books.google.com.au/books?id=eJfXkj56H0kC&pg=PA37&dq=deterministic+and+seemingly+meaningless+universe,  John-Paul Sartre. Terrorism in general usage means more than any one of the four previous categories. During the French occupation of Algeria (1954 – 1962), French military and Algerian government forces were constantly harassed by the guerrillas of the Armée de Libération Nationale (FLN), which objected to French involvement in Algerian affairs. All in some way contribute to ‘the interests and desires of the individual become secondary to the group [or individual cause] and he/she will take any steps to advance its [and if the act is a lone-wolf attack it must, by necessity, contribute to the group] goals.’ The actions may be different dependent on the actors, however, this article argues that they are driven by observing the West as an existential threat to their religion, culture, and tribe along with many other aspects of their lives and moreover, the acts of violence will continue as long as the West is perceived as an existential threat. Chesham: Acumen Publishing, 2006, 111.  For an overarching account of this action. The second type is the religious lone-wolf, who perpetrates terrorism in the name of Islam, Judaism or some other belief system.’ See: Jeffrey Simon. https://www.europeaninstitute.org/index.php/167-european-affairs/ea-january-2013/1683-mali-the-french-way-of-war; The Saudi Arabia government ‘promised bin Laden that the foreigners would leave as soon as the [1991 Gulf] war was over. 23 Author: Ekaterina Stepanova Created Date The combatants of asymmetrical warfare have received a myriad of names, such as: insurgents, guerrillas, insurrectionists, terrorists, and rebels. Other Western nation-states, because of their similarities to these three countries are also able to claim the dangers of terrorism is existential and therefore, terrorism from this perspective, does represent an existential threat to the West. Having sketched a portrait of terrorism, we must now turn to an assessment of terrorism in light of just war principles. ‘Is terrorism in Europe at an historical high?’ World Economic Forum.  Edward Said. Report Documentation Page Form Approved OMB No. Adding the new terminology ascribes and signals, a fundamentally different view of terrorism and extends it beyond simply â¦ For a comprehensive assessment of the Israel-Palestine conflict see, Tanya Reinhart, How to end the War of 1948.; ‘Nigeria: Corruption Fuelling Police Abuses.’ See: Human Rights Watch. For that reason, before we apply just war principles to terrorism and asymmetrical warfare, we will reflect on what it is that causes us to call a particular person or group of people âterrorists.â Asia-Pacific and Cross-Strait Machinations: Challenges for Taiwan in the Nascent Phase of Pax-Sino. 12. Terrorism isn't Asymmetric warfare. Washington: NDU Press, 2015. http://ndupress.ndu.edu/Publications/Books/Lessons-Encountered/Article/915829/chapter-1-initial-planning-and-execution-in-afghanistan-and-iraq/,  For a comprehensive assessment of the Taliban in Afghanistan see, ‘Soldiers killed as Taliban storms Kandahar base.’ Al-Jazeera.  Thomas Ricks. A significant part of the reason that Afghanistan is an abject failure is the West comprises the US, ISAF and its allies and a compliant and obsequious Afghan government has sought to make Afghanistan, ‘something safe for us [the West], but entirely foreign to the Afghans’ which accords to the historic Western notions of the Orient comprising East Asia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the Middle East as being ‘silent, available to Europe for the realizations of [its] projects… .’. Terrorism therefore, has been given a renewed prominence and is a higher level of menace. Boston: Longman, 2013, 26. There are difficulties with both views.  What is an existential-threat is dependent on perspectives. February 14, 2001 Describes the threat and effect of asymmetric and terrorist attacks using chemical weapons. The World has continued to battle with various forms of vulnerabilities issues, with several stakeholders coming up with solutions to the crisis. There are no comments yet, but you can be first to comment this article. Future War: How do We Prepare Ethically for Radically New Forms of Warfare on the Horizon? Sartre, however describes these actions reflecting ‘a deep responsibility for all humanity.’ See: http://www.public.asu.edu/~jmlynch/273/documents/sartre-existentialism-squashed.pdf.  See: ‘empiricism.’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary. Never miss a post!  President Rodrigo Duterte’s of the Philippines ongoing ‘war on drugs’ has been criticised by Human Rights Watch due to the number of unlawful extra-judicial killings. In regard to means, acts of terror involve the deliberate killing of noncombatants or harming of property to create a spirit of fear in order to gain leverage for attaining various goals. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Drone Warfare? E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. It explores the concept of insurgency as well the objectives it is focused on, interrogating the traditional and modern terrorist insurgencies and drawing a distinction between counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism.  See: ‘Existentialism.’ Dictionary.com/British Dictionary. I'm not talking about a revolution in warfare; rather, this is the international terrorists' response to the revolution in warfare seen in the no- contact wars of the past decade. We must avoid responding in unjust ways if we wish to be effective in combating terrorism, winning the hearts and minds of the civilian population, and upholding the moral order of war to which we are committed. ‘What makes a lone-wolf terrorist so dangerous?’ 18 April, 2013. The US in Iraq and US and ISAF in Afghanistan are possibly the most significant kinetic interventions with regard to enforcing and reinforcing a Euro-centric/Eurocentrism model of good government and governance. Learning from the Long War. An example of this can be traced to the Gulf War (1990- 1991), in which Osama bin Laden, (and his Al-Qaeda followers) did not approve of Saddam’s military forces invading Kuwait, however, Bin Laden’s greatest objections were the US’ maintenance of the Saudi Arabian monarchy; the monarchy’s continuing subjugation of Islam’s holiest land; and the deployment of US troops on Islam’s holy Saudi Arabian soil to fight a fellow Arab state. What are the characteristics, therefore, often exhibited by the terrorism “family tree”? Additionally, they do not enjoy widespread support as a political group and thus must resort to secretive acts of terror. Yet, the challenge to build a consistently effective and ethical counterterrorism is one that we must meet, and continue to meet, as new and extreme iterations of terrorism emerge. He is also the author of Every Square Inch: An Introduction to Cultural Engagement for Christians and One Nation Under God: A Christian Hope for American Politics. Although the word is used regularly, and although we know an act of terror when we see it, it is best to define the concept. Terrorism from an existential perspective is when an individual, ‘surges up in the world and then defines himself afterwards … and then he will be what he makes of himself.’ Theoretically, the individual making the decision to carry out an act of terrorism is doing so with ‘freedom, decision and responsibility … [and] these matters constitute the core of personal being.’ It is these factors that have contributed to the reconfiguring of terrorism from being a strategic and tactical asymmetrical-threat, to an asymmetrical- and existential-threat. Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence for political or religious purposes. Look at America—filled with terror from north to south, east to west—all praise be to Allah! Whether it has been brought about by numerous failed models of interventionism, it is necessary for Western governments to label terrorism as an existential-threat rather than an empirical- or rational-threat. This is due to labeling a threat in this way disentangles the West from accepting and admitting reactions against it may have a reasoned and rationale evidence-base. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). Civil and guerrilla â¦ The process of terrorism morphing from a violent asymmetrical-threat to an asymmetrical- and existential-threat, signals a profound change in its trajectory by Western governments. The existential nature of a terrorist attack is equally able to be applied to a small group or an ‘army’ such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria as the decision-making and homogenization components are similar. The West’s intervention in Afghanistan by the United States of America (US) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in 2001—Operation Enduring Freedom—in order to expel the Taliban is a prime example of an involvement that was and remains, ill-conceived, badly-executed and ineffectual as the Taliban continues to be a robust force. 17 Aug, 2010. Terrorism, guerilla warfare and wars between unequals now called asymmetric warfare is not something new. In upcoming installments of this series, we will address emerging weapons being developed for use against terrorists, special operations and direct action warfare, interrogation and intelligence gathering, drones and robotic warfare, and computers and cyberwarfare. How Do Just War Principles Apply to Terrorism & Asymmetrical Warfare? In the former, under attack or occupation from a superior power, it may be possible to use unconventional tactics such as hit-and-run and selective battles as an effective means of harassment without violatinâ¦ The second category focuses on teleology, on the driving motives or purposes, such as terrorizing, destabilizing, demoralizing, or coercing. New York: Routledge, 2002, 94. In the modern context, asymmetric warfare is increasingly considered a component of fourth generation warfare. See: https://www.hrw.org/tag/philippines-war-drugs. Currently, the term âterroristâ has, in many cases, overcome the rest of them. But what is “terrorism”? This factor brings existentialism to the fore as the decision to die for a cause (theoretically) presents a willingness to make the ultimate and most intimate of personal decision-making, one which is free of logic and reasoning. Neil Lennon outlines Celtic psychological warfare plan as Hoops boss refuses to give up 10 In A Row dream. The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" Placing improvised-explosive-devices in public spaces, kidnapping and targeting government buildings is to list only several examples of commitment to what are termed ‘target rich environments.’ In more contemporary times the political rhetoric, largely by Western politicians’ have morphed terrorism into a more lethal dyad: the combination of being an asymmetrical- and an existential- threat. amount, in any currency, is appreciated. https://www.hrw.org/news/2010/08/17/nigeria-corruption-fueling-police-abuses. It is important, however, to look beyond todayâs headlines about Yemen and consider the broader range of threats the US now â¦ That is the Question. To be an existentialist by necessity means to be a person that has and applies, an existentialist approach to situations. ; France had been stating for months in 2012, that a West African military force should bring control to Mali. The cause being exercised through the prism of a certain set of values via recalcitrance and in this case through the usage of violence. It is politicians’ in the West that have controlled the debate, and observed the catastrophic consequences of the attacks, and have sought to prove that terrorism and terrorists are free from judging their actions through the prism of negative Western influences. Just like fascism and communism before it, terrorism has gripped the world population with fear. As all warfare throughout history has been asymmetric to a greater or lesser extent, this ânewâ âAsymmetric Warfareâ (note the capitals to enforce the semantics) has come to be defined as otherwise militarily inferior forces seeking to strike at more powerful adversaries by targeting and exploiting weaknesses of the â¦ See: ‘World trade Center Disaster.’ United States Search and Rescue Task Force. At the level of public policy, one of the most significant debates is whether to classify counterterrorism as warfare or police action. With regard to individual actions terrorism has morphed beyond large group-think actions such as Baader-Meinhof Gang/Red Army Faction, to being more persuasive to the individuals, and it is here that the connection to existentialism is more erudite and easily made. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel). In the Twenty-first century it is a germane observation that the number of attacks appears to be on the increase and without doubt this is due to the news cycle and the immediacy with which an attack is reported. London: Pengion Books, 1978, 94. Attacks on soft-targets do have an existential basis, as an attack requires a high-degree of decision-making by the individual in the process of acquiring the necessary assets, and of following through with the attack. An action that the West nevertheless, persists in following. The type of conflict varies widely; historical examples include: Secession of a territory to form a new â¦ Any Yuval Harari argues that the peacefulness of modern states makes them paradoxically more vulnerable to terrorism than pre-modern states. New York: Penguin, 2007, 5-6. Adding the new terminology ascribes and signals, a fundamentally different view of terrorism and extends it beyond simply being non-state actors taking up arms against the State to that of an actor or actors, using violence as a means of personal expression. ‘Why did we fail in the Afghan war? Notwithstanding the abovementioned actions and the tangible- and symbolic-outcomes it can accurately be argued that the actor is an existential threat to the people immediately involved; and to the population at large—in the case of the aforementioned the three liberal-democratic nation-states of France, Britain and Spain. http://newsroom.ucla.edu/stories/what-makes-lone-wolfe-terrorists-245316,  The Baader-Meinhof Group was formed in 1968 and had its origins in the German protest university movement of the 1970s. See: John McQuarrie. 8 Jan, 2015. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-01-08/paris-newspaper-attack-mapped/6006110. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License, Copyright © — E-International Relations. California: Sage Publications, 2004, Vol 22, 5-13. Existentialism is a Humanism.1945. Notwithstanding these factors, attacks of this type have been used as strategic and tactical necessities by terrorists for many decades. The ongoing and consistent animosity toward the West by exogenous and non-state actors in the aforementioned clearly offers examples of the West being deemed an existential threat to their societies. Groups and individuals that present and are subsequently involved in fighting Western forces in non-Western environments essentially, ‘seek to liberate themselves and their co-nationals from what they perceive to be a colonial situation or a repressive government.’ The existential-connectivity of a group is no doubt enhanced through their successes (and losses), and this it can be argued also informs and compels an ongoing belligerence toward their enemy. London: Penguin Books, 1973, 14 -17. See: Cindy Combs. Fourth, object-focused definitions focus on the target of terrorism, the deliberate or reckless use of force against noncombatants. In this post we’ve tried to define terrorism as clearly as possible in order to highlight why and in what ways it violates principles of just war. Whilst this may broaden the facets of existentialism to a politico-bloc the West is nonetheless, making decisions and enacting choices. Whilst both operations were aimed at regime change it can also be argued that they represent a strategic-foothold for the West in the Middle East which reflects its colonizing history and its inabilities to exercise comprehensive change beyond strategic necessity. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Western Conceptions of the Orient. It is through the use of persistent minor lethal disruptions from which strategic- and political-advantage is gained. The Ethics of Special Operations Warfighting, Podcast: The Gospel of Marx: A False Religion Explained, 4 Key Ingredients in a Devotional Reading of Scripture, Top 10 Books for Defending the Faith in a Secular Age, Tony Dungy, Nick Foles, and the Emerging Trend of Christian-Shaming, 12 Books Every Pastor, Professor, or Student Should Read (about Christianity, Politics, & Public Life), Significantly, terrorists almost always fail the criteria of, Most significantly, terrorists flout the principle of, In addition to waging war abroad, we must engage in. Individual action—in the case of a lone-wolf actor—has (theoretically) much less influence from forces external to the self, for instance other members of a group or cell, and the individual encompasses existentialism and becomes an existential-threat. Pakistan and Terrorism: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor as Critical Juncture? Thus, ISAF is a force that requires an existential response from an exogenous actor. Suicide Terrorism. From a broader political perspective the existential threat the West represents—as a body-politic—is usually judged through the prism of political recognition, military-ties and economic benefits and the concomitant non-recognition that non-state actors may have valid claims regarding exploitative government- and economic-structures, and that repression and discrimination are present. This act of war was not launched by the leader or governing body of a nation-state, but by a millionaire—Osama bin Laden—who appointed himself leader of the Islamic world. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our A Reconstruction. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/empiricism,  For a comprehensive list of terrorist attacks 1970 – 2016. Thus, instead of locking in on a tight definition, Coates argues, we recognize terrorism’s complex and multi-faceted nature by studying it empirically and contextually, showing how the various aspects of terrorism relate to each other, impact each other, and come together as a whole.  James Lutz and Brenda Lutz. But American forces were in Saudi Arabia a year after the Gulf War ended, and bin Laden felt betrayed.  Alistair Horne. The title âasymmetric warfareâ given to terrorism and guerilla warfare enables a scientific study of the phenomenon of terrorism, which has gripped the world since September 11, 2001. In the modern context, asymmetric warfare is increasingly considered a component of fourth generation warfare. Encyclopedia of Terrorism. That is the Question. The West is so spellbound with âThe War on Terrorâ that people see terrorists in every airport, every café and in every mosque. Whilst all of the reasons that exogenous groups attack governments—particularly Western ones—is beyond the debate in this article, and bearing in mind there is unlikely to be any unique cause for terrorism, as there is no key event identifying the moment that an actor views himself or herself as a soldier fighting for comrades and cause, an historical underpinning that drives violent reactions by exogenous groups does have a primary focus. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, â¦ 0704-0188 Public reporting â¦ The phrase was always too broad and too ambiguous, and it implied some kind of unity in the threat that never existed. Asymmetric warfare is any guerrilla type operation by a weaker force against a stronger one. 1. War at the Top of the World. 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